Our primary research fields are high temperature processing, bridging the gap between the fundamental study and industrial application for pyrometallurgical production and refining of metals.

Our research interests include:

  • Thermodynamic and phase equilibria of metallurgical slags
  • Physiochemical properties of high temperature melts, e.g. viscosity, thermal and electrical conductivity, density
  • Fluid dynamics of bath smelting techniques
  • Development of advanced refractories
  • Secondary steel refining and inclusion control
  • Microalloyed and oxide metallurgy of advanced steels

Experimental Facilities and thermodynamic software


FEI F20 FEG-STEMThe Philips Tecnai F20 FEG-S/TEM is an analytical transmission electron microscope with the capability to deliver one nanoamp (10-9A) of current into a probe of one nanometre (10-9m) in diameter. The unique analytical resolution is a result of the high brightness field emission gun (FEG) which acts an electron source in the microscope.

The instrument can be operated in TEM-microprobe, TEM-nanoprobe or STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope) mode. It is fitted with an Oxford SDD thin window X-ray (EDS) detector which is capable of detecting elements ranging from boron upwards.

The TEM operation is integrated within the Windows NT platform along with a 4kx4k OneView CMOS camera with in-situ software. A Gatan Image Filter (GIF) is fitted to the bottom of the microscope column and comes with a 2kx2k slow scan CCD, a bright field (BF), dark field (DF), and high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) STEM detectors are all located just above the entrance aperture for the GIF.

The GIF is able to analyze elements from lithium upwards and thus is ideal for light element analysis. Just like EDS, the GIF can perform elemental analysis, and also deliver bonding information at the nanoscale.

The instrument has a twin-lens objective pole-piece and is capable of ±70°. There are cryo-sample holders (-183 °C), tilt-rotate holder, double-tilt (±30°) low background (Be) EDS holder, a high temperature double-tilt holder (±30°) capable of heating samples up to 1000 °C.